"The Great Silk Road" - The Greatest Way of Enlightenment
31 Jul 2018


The ancient history is a witness that the people of Uzbekistan and China working on the basis of good partnership and good neighborly relations. The cultural-enlightening relations between two countries gave the whole world a place called the Great Silk Road, unique to the region, the importance of the region in terms of equality, and most of them donated a transcontinental highway passing through Central Asia. As a result of peace and cooperation, the Chinese have access to Central Asia and through it to the rest parts of the world.


Through this route, the East and the West were closely acquainted with each other, as well as the expansion of trade and economic relations, and the enlightenment schools led to a variety of cultures.


Buddhist, Confucius and Central Asian thinkers' interconnection views in this area became a bridge to the scientific and cultural spheres of two countries by the visit of diplomat and traveler Zhang Qian with hundred tourists for the first time in this established direction in the Middle East in 138 BC. The Ancient Tsonga (chinmochin) people learned the doctrine of Buddha from the scholars of Samarkand, Tashkent, and Termez, and during the learning process they introduced confucian and dao philosophies to Turan people, which eventually was made an unprecedented spiritual-irony connection, touched upon thousands of years until the arrival of Islam the closest connection of our people in various fields exactly were with China.


Originally from Samarkand, Kan Sen-Hue, a great mentor, scholar, translator, and monk of China at the time when Buddhism became known there, reached the highest respect in China. Kan Sen-Hue mainly focused on the most important and actual issues in the social sphere, especially in philosophy. He aspired to merge Buddhism, Confucianism and Daoism, and at the same time to alleviate contradictions existing between philosophical ideas and serve them for the path of human perfection and enlightenment.


The famous French orientalist Jean Paul Ru wrote: "Samarkand was a city of legends and traditions, as if it is a temple, almost sacred city." Samarkand Higher Education Institutions always attracted Chinese science lovers’ interest as a learning center. Famous pilgrim, famous for its Chinese monk, scientist, traveler, philosopher and translator, Huangzang, (Xuánzàng, 602-664y) traveled not only to Fergana and Tashkent, but also to Semizkent (Samarkand), called Samotszyan.


Apart from visiting Samarkand, Huangzang studied at higher education institutions which are in university-level, and communicated with the scholars.The existence of the ideas that buddhist doctrine contributes to common human ideas with noble ideas of Zoroastrianism, two large and huge Buddhist scholars of famous all over the world Samarkand attracted his great impression.


The“In-Jan”philosophy symbol, in the Chinese philosophy, which occupies one of the most important places in Confucianism and Buddhism, is quite realistic that the origin of the Buddhism in China appeared in Turonzemin. This symbol may be associated China with Buddhist doctrine. "In-Yan" is also reflected in our national headdress - skullcaps. The difference is that on the four sides of the top of Uzbek skullcap there is a standard of Yan (white fish) emblem. This means that the power of goodness is spread four times in four directions.


The great thinker of the East, the founder of the first university in China, pedagogue and sociologist Confucius occupied a special place in the system of world spiritual values.  His teachings, which came into our country through the Great Silk Road, were studied with great interest by our scholars.


Cultural and scientific and educational relations with China do not cease even after the Islam came to our country.  This is because of the hadith, which has been a guide for our scholars, “Find Out Science even in Chin (China)” refers to the desire of communication with China. The Central Asian scientists enriched the sayings of Chin land with local traditions and created new works, while Chinese scholars, in turn, blessed with the knowledge of Central Asian philosophers. The teachings of tasawwuf which is the pearl of the Confucian and Islamic culture harmonized and they together became the embodiment of incomplete sciences.


Humanity, rules of behavior, and the notion of virtue play an important role in Confucius doctrine, which came into common with the ideas of tasawwuf ideas.


According to doctrine, people should respect the elderly, the prominent people, and be loyal to the king in the ethical and social relationships.


Due to the behavior, high qualifications will form, the society will strengthen, justice will win.


The ideas of "jen", "li", "ven", that is, the idea of “perfect person”, which is the main theme in the Confucius doctrine, it found its reflection in the works of the great scholars of Beruni, Farobi, Ibn Sino, who are our compatriots, and took a leading position in the spiritual outlook of the East and also in a scientific environment of Samarkand, which is a key link in the Great Silk Road connecting nations of the world.


The people originated from Samarkand, the so-called people "salar" live in Syunhou province of China today. Sources have pointed out that the ancestors of salar moved with their families from Samarkand to the area where they live now in the 14th century. They created a new homeland from cool and beautiful places of China. It is located in the areas of Xinjiang, Gansu provinces of China near the starting point of the largest rivers of Asia, Huang He, Yangtze and Mekong. The ancestors of the salars took with them the ancient manuscript of the Kuran from Samarkand, and this type of holy book is the oldest copy in China.


The salar whose ancestors were from Samarkand became in an equal rights, as well as with other nations of Republic of China. They fully utilize their national autonomous rights, promote the development of the national economy, continually increase their economy, and improve their education, culture, and health and living conditions.


30,000 people originated from Samarkand are living in the "Tsuzuze neighborhood" near the current Chinese capital Beijing.


It is well known that the term "medicine" ("Madadi Sino") is directly related to the name of Abu Ali ibn Sino (980 - 1037, Avicenna), who is our great compatriot, great physician and scientist. Medicine is a matter of history of the Uzbek and Chinese people.


The services of the Turkistan palace doctors, who are known by their names of Husain ibn Ishaq (IX century), Sabur bin Sayxal (IX century), Sahar Bakht (IX century), Marvarzi (IX century), Mr. Tszinuy (XIII century), as well as with Ibn Sino were great in the formation of Chinese medicine.


Famous scholar Burhoniddin Sogarji (XIV century), who was buried in the Ruhobod (XIV-XV century) mausoleum in Samarkand, lived in the palace as Chinese governor's son-in-law in the palace and is well known as a propagandist and practitioner of philosophical ideas in Turonzamin.


The ideological and scientific community in the views of Chinese and Uzbek scholars is also evident in the work of the educated master and great scientist Mirzo Ulugbek. During his reign the leading ideas in Confucius Philosophy also reflected in the teaching process at Samarkand madrasahs solving issues related to human and society.


Mirzo Ulugbek's famous "Ziji jadidi ", devoted to astronomy, was popular not only in China but also in Europe and India (published in Oxford in 1665). Great European philosopher Voltaire called the “Academy of Ulugbek” the scientific place where more than 100 scholars of Ulughbek studied scientific researches.


According to Abdurazzak Samarkandiy, Mirzo Ulugbek and his father, Shohruh Mirzo, always paid close attention to establish effective contacts with Chinese leaders. On September 21, 1418, a delegation of ambassadors led by the King of China, Lee Do and Djong Ku, met with a large-scale ceremony in Samarkand. The ambassadors handed in credentials with important suggestions and valuable prizes about the development of friendly relations between the two countries to Ulugbek. In turn, they received appropriate response and gifts from Samarkand ruler.


Chinese ambassadors' visit come along with a class of traditional lessons along with tasawwuf ideas of Confucius doctrine in Chinese philosophy was applied to the educational process at Ulugbek University (Ulugbek madrasah) in Samarkand. Two years later, Mirzo Ulugbek sent a large delegation of 530 people, headed by Emir Sultonshah and Muhammad Bakhshi to China, and sent the students to China for training. Such relations with China continued until the end of the life of Mirzo Ulugbek, and along with various traditional knowledge, the Confucius doctrine was specially tought in the Ulugbek' s madrasah.


The history of Samarkand State University as a continuation of the great Ulugbek Madrasah - education academy there is also being used Confucius philosophy as part of the philosophy science that is the treasure of important spiritual values upbringing a new generation.   


 A great deal of attention was paid to studying Confucius' life and doctrine in the number of manuals and monographs related to Chinese philosophy and literature by the scientists of the university.


From this point of view, there is a symbolic meaning in installation a monument to great Chinese philosopher Confucius in the territory of Samarkand State University with the opinions and initiatives of the Head of our state, Sh.Mirziyoyev on the occasion of his visit to China on May 14-15, 2017. According to the interstate agreement, Confucius research institutes are working under the Tashkent Institute of Oriental Studies and Samarkand State Institute of Foreign Languages.


Today, the Uzbek-Chinese relations entered to a new phase. The "One Place, One Road " project in Beijing, aimed at boosting trade and economic cooperation between the countries of the Great Silk Road, plays an important role in raising and demonstrating  economic potential of Uzbekistan. At present time, the friendship between Uzbek and Chinese people is strengthening increasingly and the foundation of Confucius' name and education is becoming popular among the people. Putting forward ideas in the thinker' s works such as Confucius, Mirzo Ulugbek and Alisher Navoi and others belongs not only to the spirituality and culture of the Uzbek and Chinese people, but also to an invaluable spiritual and educational heritage of the peoples all over the world. Nowadays, Today, the doctrine of Confucius and Central Asian doctrine teachings will be a strong shield in the prevention of "mass culture", which is coming from Europe, from the nations that are preserving national values, traditions and customs, promoting violence, prostitution, bloodshed, ideologies, and threatening the whole world as a global problem, and in protection from them as an immune system. Taking into account the need for Confucius doctrine, the necessity of his philosophical views continuity in the highly-qualified cadres training system there will be install a monument to the great thinker Confucius in the territory of Samarkand State University and the memory square opening we accept as a deep respect to a great thinker and to the teacher of the teachers.


Author: Rector of Samarkand State University   R.I Khalmuradov